JSS 3 Basic Science Past Questions and Answers

In this blog post, we will explore some basic concepts related to family traits, soil erosion, and flooding. We will break down the key ideas and provide straightforward explanations for each topic.

Family Traits:

Family traits are characteristics or features that are passed down from one generation to another within a family. They can include things like the color of your eyes, the texture of your hair, or even certain health conditions. Most family traits are inherited through genes from our parents. For example, possessing two eyes, having a certain skin complexion, and even some hereditary diseases can be considered family traits.

Uses of Family Traits:

Family traits serve various purposes, such as:

  • Tracing family lineage and connections.
  • Identifying potential hereditary health risks or diseases.
  • Understanding genetic patterns and inheritance.
  • Assisting in forensic investigations or crime detection.

Causes of Soil Erosion:

Soil erosion is the process by which soil is worn away by natural forces, such as water and wind. Some common causes of soil erosion include:

  1. Heavy rainfall and water runoff.
  2. Deforestation, which removes vegetation that holds the soil together.
  3. Poor agricultural practices, like overgrazing or improper plowing.
  4. Construction activities that disturb the soil.
  5. Wind, especially in areas with loose soil.

Flooding and Prevention:

Flooding occurs when an area becomes inundated with water, often due to heavy rainfall, overflowing rivers, or storm surges. To prevent flooding, various measures can be taken, including:

  • Building and maintaining proper drainage systems.
  • Constructing dams and levees to control water flow.
  • Avoiding construction in flood-prone areas.
  • Creating and preserving natural wetlands, which can absorb excess water.
  • Implementing effective urban planning to manage water runoff.

Controlling Soil Erosion:

There are several ways to control soil erosion, including:

  1. Planting trees and vegetation to stabilize the soil.
  2. Terracing, which involves creating steps on slopes to slow water runoff.
  3. Using cover crops that protect the soil from erosion.
  4. Implementing proper farming practices, like crop rotation and contour plowing.
  5. Mulching to cover the soil with organic materials, reducing water impact.
  6. Installing erosion control structures, such as silt fences.
  7. Creating buffer zones along rivers or streams with native plants.


Understanding family traits, soil erosion, and flooding is essential for both personal awareness and environmental conservation. By recognizing and addressing these factors, we can contribute to healthier families and a more sustainable planet.